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Abstract Objects

We have repeatedly alluded to the notion of abstract objects, as we have talked about, for example, propositions underlying information. As our last point of consideration in this seminar, we will now take a closer look at the necessary existence …

Information Theory Continued

We have settled upon a working definition of “information.” It is: Semantical content intentionally formed and conveyed according to syntactical rules.

We see three primary components of this definition: Syntax (form/structure), semantics (meaning), and intention. Each is a necessary condition …

Philosophy of Mind Continued 3

We have briefly introduced and contrasted Humean empiricism and Kantian transcendental idealism. We’ve talked about primary and secondary qualities, and we’ve talked about how that division leads to the Kantian division between “things in themselves” and “appearances.” At this juncture, …

Hume’s Empiricism

David Hume (1711-1776) was a Scottish philosopher who is now universally considered preeminent among the so-called “British empiricists.” However, even higher praise comes from Kant himself, who said that Hume “awakened me from my dogmatic slumber.”

“Dogmatic” in Kant’s time …

What does “materialism” mean?

This term seems more straightforward than many of the others we are defining. But even this term has important subtleties that are too often overlooked. Evolutionists mean something very particular by it.

In short, “materialism” is a metaphysical commitment. It …

Observables and Unobservables

Let’s say that I ask you a simple question: “Do you have hands?”

Do you even need to look before you answer? Of course not! You have used them, you have seen them, and you have felt them too many …

Realism vs. Anti-Realism

The reason this whole seminar makes “the rubber meet the road,” so to speak, is that we are ultimately doing metaphysics. We are ultimately talking about knowing about what there really is in the universe. We want reality! We …

Evidence

Everything we have discussed so far in this course has been leading to this first fundamentally significant point: We must carefully assess evidence in our decisions of what to believe. We are perpetually assessing evidence, so one of our most