When we must have certainty, we must rely upon deductive inferences. When a new bridge or a space shot depends upon the mathematics, we don’t think, “Well, math is unreliable, but that’s okay because our equations are likely to be …


Most of the inferences we make every day are inductive: there is only a certain likelihood that our conclusions are true. Furthermore, most of the time we are not even aware that we are making such inferences.

For example, every …

What Is Philosophy?

The word, “Philosophy,” is a combination of two Greek words that mean, “Love of wisdom.” The practice of philosophy can be called “wisdom-seeking,” or, as it is more commonly thought of today, “truth-seeking.”

Of course, most people don’t think of …


What is an Argument?

In the logical sense, the sense with which we will be concerned, an argument is a group of propositions (statements with a truth value), some of which are given in support of another. The supporting propositions …

Introduction: Evolutionary Arguments

  • What is science? What is science really doing?
  • What does “evolution” even mean?
  • Are evolution and creation really opposed?
  • Is naturalism an adequate account of everything that there is?

These and a host of related questions will be our subject …